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The new audiovisual law in five keys

The audiovisual sector must assume as soon as possible the new rules introduced by the recently approved General Audiovisual Law Communication (LGCA). And learn to live with them to face the new challenges that lie ahead. We summarize, in 5 points, the most relevant modifications.

What is the importance of law in society?

Have you ever wondered how the world would work without rules and regulations? The importance of law in society lies in the fact that. Without it, everything you know would be in chaos. No one would be interested in protecting the rights of individuals. And justice would not be applied, therefore, crimes would not be punished. In this article you will find out why studying Law is a good option to contribute to society!

Organic Law of the Environment

The law establishes the provisions and guiding principles for the management of the environment. Within the framework of sustainable development as a fundamental right and duty of the State and society. To contribute to the safety and achievement of the maximum well-being of the population and to the maintenance of the planet, in the interest of humanity. Likewise, it establishes the norms that develop the constitutional guarantees and rights to a safe, healthy, and ecologically balanced environment.

Right to information

Law of environment

The right to information about the environment must be recognized by each person. The State is the guarantor of its exercise, the reliability of the information, and of its dissemination. This right will be exercised according to the modalities defined in this Law. In the other normative instruments that are issued for this purpose.

The State shall guarantee every person access to environmental information. Unless it has been classified as confidential, in accordance with the law.

Activate Transparency

The authority The National Environmental Authority will establish and maintain an Environmental Information Registry, which must contain biophysical, economic, and social data and legal information related to the environment. The data in the registry are freely available for consultation.

The registry referred to in the previous article must contain at least the following aspects: Inventories of biological diversity and its components; The inventory of sources of emission and contamination of soil, air, and water; Information on the habitat and lands of indigenous peoples and communities duly demarcated.

Right to Participate

Environmental management includes Citizen participation: Active and leading participation in environmental management is a duty and a right of all citizens.

The objectives of environmental management, under the stewardship and coordination of the National Environmental Authority: Promote and stimulate environmental education and the leading participation of society.

The guidelines for environmental planning are Citizen participation and information dissemination, as incorporated processes at all levels of environmental planning.

All people have the right and the duty to participate in matters related to environmental management.

Participation in Activities or Projects

The environmental impact assessment is an early warning process. That operates through a continuous, informed, and objective analysis. This allows for identifying the best options to carry out an action without intolerable damage. Through concatenated and participatory decisions, in accordance with the policies and environmental technical standards.

Participation in Plans, Programs, And Policies

The guidelines for environmental planning are Citizen participation and information dissemination, as incorporated processes at all levels of environmental planning.

The National Environmental Plan is a long-term instrument that guides national environmental policy at the regional, state, municipal and local levels. It will contain the following guidelines: Environmental education and citizen participation.

Environmental organizations, indigenous peoples and communities, communal councils, organized communities, and other associative forms, may develop projects framed in shared environmental management and committed to the conservation of ecosystems, natural resources, and sustainable development under the modalities of self-management and co-management.

The National Executive, through the ministry with competence in environmental matters, will regulate the mechanisms to make effective the legitimate exercise of the right to citizen participation in the formulation, adoption, execution, and control of policies, plans, projects, and other measures aimed at environmental preservation.

Right to Appeal

Every person has the right and the duty to report to the competent authorities. Any fact that threatens a healthy, safe, and ecologically balanced environment.

Responsibility and Evidence in Environmental Damage

Environmental management includes Responsibility for environmental damage: Responsibility for environmental damage is objective. And its repair will be at the expense of the person responsible for the activity or the offender.

The responsibility derived from damage caused to the environment is of an objective nature. The simple existence of the damage determines the responsibility of the damaging agent for having been the cause of that damage. And for such who must compensate for the damages caused by his conduct. Sufficing the simple verification of the performance of the harmful conduct.

In all convictions for crimes in which damage or harm to the environment or natural resources results, the judge will impose on the person or persons responsible the obligation to execute the corresponding restorative measures, repair the damage caused by the crime and compensate the damage.

Environmental Education

Environmental education: Continuous, interactive, and integrating process, through which the human being acquires knowledge. And experiences understand and analyze them. Internalizes, and translates them into behaviors, values, ​​​​and attitudes. That prepares him to participate as a protagonist in the management of the environment and sustainable development.

Environmental education aims to promote, generate, develop and consolidate citizens’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes to contribute to the transformation of society, which will be reflected in alternative solutions to socio-environmental problems, thus contributing to the achievement of social welfare, integrating itself in the management of the environment through active and leading participation, under the premise of sustainable development.

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous peoples and local communities have the right and duty to participate in the formulation, application, evaluation, and control of national, regional, and local development plans and programs that may directly affect their lives, beliefs, values, institutions, and spiritual well- being and in the use of the lands and habitats that they ancestrally occupy and use collectively.

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Top 5: Best Books on the Law of Attraction

At the end of 2017, I was given the book Positive Mental Attitude by Napoleon Hill. Thanks to that book I realized that I had allowed myself to be influenced by the people. And spaces around me and now I had a pessimistic attitude. Having this kind of negative attitude did not allow me to see all the good things in my life. Nor did it allow me to attract more positive energy to my day today. After reading this book, I decided to actively change my attitude and focus on finding everything I could be thankful for and enjoy in my daily life. From that moment on I couldn’t do anything but continue to investigate more about the Law of Attraction and begin to enjoy the benefits it has brought to my life.

Professional cameras: Which is the best of 2022?

Capturing the moment through photography is a concept that has been present in our society since the creation of the first camera. Whether it is to have a “visual memory”, capture the details of a facial expression, show the beauty of a city, or the details of a product for merchandising. Currently, almost everyone wants to take pictures at certain times, either with a camera or a mobile.

However, professional cameras go much further and allow us to reach the pinnacle of photography quality. Over time, they have become the best tool for any type of photography that we want to do and are suitable for both amateur and professional use. In this article, you will discover everything you need to know about professional cameras in order to choose the one that best suits your tastes and needs.

The Most Important

  • Professional cameras are complex electronic devices, due to their large number of components. These work together to provide photos with great image quality.
  • Not all professional cameras are the same, each one has certain components as well as specific characteristics. Professional cameras can be classified into different types according to their mode of operation, style/type of photography, and characteristics of their components.
  • When choosing a professional camera, several aspects must be taken into account, such as the type of photography we want to take, the use we are going to give the camera, and our level of skill in the field of photography.

The Best Professional Cameras On The Market: Our Recommendations

Professional cameras guideline

Sometimes it can be complex to choose a professional camera due to all its elements, characteristics, and typologies. But don’t worry, because we have prepared a special selection of the best professional cameras on the market and we have classified them into different types to make it easier for you to choose your professional camera.

Buying Guide: What You Should Know About Professional Cameras

Professional cameras due to their various components are considered complex electronic devices. This offers us a lot of flexibility when taking photos and allows us to adapt the camera to our tastes and photography preferences.

However, sometimes the complexity of its operation can overwhelm people who do not have an advanced command of photography and the use of cameras. Whatever your case, don’t worry, because we have prepared a guide answering the most common questions from users.

What Are Professional Cameras?

Professional cameras are electronic devices of a certain complexity due to all the elements that compose them and their operating process. They usually have an interchangeable lens that allows us to modify the zoom range with great image quality.

They stand out for the large number of manual adjustments they have since it is very versatile. And customizable product and we can adapt it according to our tastes and photography technique/style. They have an electronic viewfinder and a large photosensitive surface.

What Elements Makeup Professional Cameras?

One of the main characteristics of professional cameras is the great variety of elements that compose them. All of them are necessary to obtain a good image quality and the final result of the photograph. Next, you will discover what they are:

Objective: It is an optical system that is made up of a set of convex lenses. It is the part of the camera that directs light rays towards the sensor. Its two main characteristics are the focal length and the coverage angle. The focal length (zoom) is expressed in millimeters. And determines how close the image is. The angle of coverage is the field of view covered by the target. If the focal length is longer, the angle of coverage will be smaller.

Diaphragm: It is located inside the lens and its function is to adjust the intensity of the light that reaches the sensor.

Sensor: Its function is to transform the optical image created by the objective into a series of electrical signals that will give rise to the digital image.

Viewfinder: It is the component of the camera that allows framing and focusing the image. It also allows you to preview the photo before taking it.

Shutter: Its main function is to control the exposure time. And the light to which the sensor will be exposed.

Screen: It is a characteristic component, especially in digital cameras. Its main functions are to display the images behind the photos, preview the image, and access the camera configuration settings.

Buttons and control dials: SLR cameras tend to have more buttons as their use is more complex, while compact cameras tend to have fewer. They allow you to control the camera settings as well as the photography parameters.

What Types Of Professional Cameras Are There?

Today we can find a wide variety of cameras on the market according to their style, level of photography, and mode of operation. However, within cameras for professional use, we can distinguish three types of cameras. High-end compact cameras, reflex or DSLR cameras, mirrorless cameras, and medium format cameras.

Compact cameras differ mainly by their fixed lens, that is, they do not have an interchangeable lens. This makes them lighter and easier to use. However, only the high-end ones are of a professional level.

The higher-end ones offer a larger sensor, better image quality, and usually include better optics and luminosity.

SLR or DSLR cameras are the ones that are most often classified as professional cameras. They use a mirror (reflex) that reflects light and directs it towards the viewfinder. They are cameras with a more complex operation, larger, and with enormous image quality.

Mirrorless cameras, on the other hand, do not have a mirror or an optical viewfinder. They use an electronic viewfinder and their size is smaller. Medium format cameras are mainly known for the large size of their sensors. Which provides images with a very wide dynamic range.


Photography Tips, 5 super useful tips to start applying

Nowadays, photography is an indispensable tool to communicate. Just look at your cell phone and, without having to open Instagram. You will notice that you have a wallpaper that already gives clues to your personality. Photos are everywhere! And, for that reason, now we are going to give you 5 photography tips so that yours are enviable.

Maybe you are interested in pursuing a career in photographic art and the like. Or you are the type of traveler who is crazy about photos and you want to take the best ones to share them on your social networks. So, don’t miss these tips for taking pictures that you can put into practice right now. Get to know them!

5 photography tips to apply right now

Best photography tips

Photography means, etymologically, writing with light. We do not want to get too theoretical, but knowing the origin helps to find the artistic and social value of the images that we record with our camera.

With these tips, you will discover that taking photos is much more than just focus and shooting. All ready? Here they go!

Start With What You Have

It is said that a camera does not make the photographer. And there is a lot of truth in that. If you are just starting out, you should know that the basic rules of photography can be applied with your cell phone camera or a simpler one. Being a visual arts discipline, the rules and concepts are similar to those of painting and drawing.

So don’t underestimate the tools you have. Remember that you put the “soul” of your photos, regardless of whether you do it with your cell phone or with the most expensive camera. Once this level is unlocked, you can go looking for better equipment. The most advisable thing is to save to travel and practice these photography tips with your mobile in unknown lands.

Does the law of thirds ring a bell?

Although you may know it in another way, practically all cell phones have the option to activate a grid in their configuration. This becomes a guide that divides the image into three equal parts vertically and horizontally or nine in total. This function helps you to frame your photo in a balanced way.

One of the ways to achieve this is to position the most outstanding elements of the image. That you are going to capture in the corners of the rectangle that forms in the center of the screen. It is very applicable if, for example, you see the sunrise on the beach and you want to give a good proportion to the sun and the beautiful horizon that you are capturing.

Composition is a basic aspect of art and could not be missing from these photography tips. If you look closely, this same rule is applied in painting and film to achieve an adequate weight between the elements of the image.

Better Avoid The Flash

If photography is writing with light, this refers primarily to natural light. It is much better to seize the day for many reasons. Try taking a photo with flash and then the same without it. You will notice that the colors maintain their tonality and the light remains uniform throughout the image and not just in the center.

In addition, you avoid the formation of hard shadows that do not go with what you want to express. The flash, including the LED on cell phones, is recommended in very low light situations or when you have difficulty using a tripod.

For example, when you are backlit, in the shadows of a sunny day, in night photos, or in fast movements. Such as those of an extreme athlete in full swing that requires a fast capture with a clear image.

Get Used To Using A Tripod

As we told you a few lines ago, a tripod is your best ally if you want to take spectacular photos. Especially when there is little natural light. If you are going to Canada, the United States, or Ireland to see the Northern Lights, having a tripod is vital. Why? Because the less light, the longer the camera takes to capture the photo.

You see, capturing an image takes fractions of a second. But if, for example, you want to photograph the full moon in an Australian landscape at night. This can take more than a second and in that small interval of time your hand can shake and your shot will be ruined.

That is why it is better to have stable support where to place the camera to shoot. And get an enviable photo. But, in addition to night shots, there are also other uses that you can give the tripod. And we will tell you about it in the fifth place of these photography tips.

Selfie Stick Vs. Timer

Selfie sticks, or selfie sticks, are widely used resources when your arm is not enough to cover everything you want to photograph. But if you want something more pro, you just have to resort to a very underrated feature in these times of social networks: the camera timer.

With the help of a tripod and your camera’s timer, you can include yourself in the portrait if there’s no one to give the camera to (or if you don’t trust anyone else to take the photo). It is enough to program the waiting time before the shot. You can apply this to a wide variety of photos: low-light landscapes, family photos, artistic self-portraits, etc.


How to Clean a Humidifier and Do Maintenance

In this guide, we explain how to clean a humidifier, which is a device useful for keeping the air in the rooms of your home clean. If you have read the guide on how a humidifier works, you already know that it is absolutely necessary to carry out careful maintenance of this small appliance. This is due to the fact that the filters tend to get dirty over time, requiring cleaning or replacement, and that the tank of the device itself can experience limescale build-up.

If you intend to keep your humidifier at peak performance, then you will need to learn how to clean it properly. You can check out the humidifier for dry eyes.

What You Need to Clean the Humidifier

Like any other household appliance, even the humidifier must undergo a cyclical cleaning phase in order to allow it to carry out its duty briskly. Otherwise, this device will not be able to guarantee your home environment a humidity level that is respectful of your needs. For this reason, it is worth starting with the tools you will need to maintain your little ally in the right way.

– Water

– Clean cloths

– Vinegar

– Liquid chlorine or bleach

– Hydrogen peroxide

– Soft bristle brush

Before proceeding with the cleaning phase, it should be noted that the maintenance of a humidifier changes according to the type of model. To give you a concrete example, vinegar proves to be an optimal cleaner for hot mist humidifiers. The reason is that you can limit yourself to cleaning the heating element of your device. In cold mist humidifiers, on the other hand, it will be necessary to proceed by cleaning every single part of the appliance due to the accumulation of any residues.

Cleaning the Humidifier

Now that you know what you need to maintain a humidifier, the time has come to move on to the various steps you will have to face for total cleaning of the instrument. First, you will need to make sure you have disconnected your humidifier from the mains, all to avoid acting on hot components. At the same time, you only need to clean it when all these parts have cooled down, so not immediately after use.

At this point, you have to remove the filter from the appliance and start cleaning it using your brush so as to remove the bulk of the residues. Then you will have to place it under running water to finish cleaning it thoroughly. Once you have cleaned the filter, you will need to put it on its side so that it can dry naturally. Before proceeding further, you should know other information. In the first place, you must never use a chemical or industrial detergent because you would risk leaving residues harmful to the health of the air on the filter. Also, while you are cleaning the filter, check its wear and possibly evaluate if it is time to replace it with a new filter.

After cleaning the filter, our advice is to move on to cleaning the water tank. In this case, you will first have to disassemble it from the humidifier structure and then fill it with vinegar, leaving it like this for at least 30 minutes. Vinegar is the best solution due to its degreasing and sanitizing properties, so it is perfect for eliminating any trace of limescale or other. Once thirty minutes have passed, you should remove the vinegar from the tub and complete the cleansing of this with simple water. Make sure you have removed all traces of vinegar to avoid contamination, then take a clean cloth soaked in vinegar and proceed to clean the external walls.

Of course, these steps will allow you to complete a surface cleaning, as your humidifier still needs to be thoroughly disinfected. You have to take the clean tank and fill it with water, adding a pinch of bleach or liquid chlorine. In both cases, a teaspoon is enough. In this case, you should wait at least 60 minutes before rinsing the tank. Once these minutes have elapsed, you will need to empty the container, remove the bleach and take a clean cloth soaked in hydrogen peroxide. The cloth is used to remove the bulk of the bleach from the internal walls, while the subsequent rinses under tap water will complete the work. Our advice is never to skimp on rinses.

Things to consider before cleaning humidifier

The following are some points that need to be considered while cleaning a humidifier:

1) Moisture which is released by the humidifier, may actually be used as an ingredient in the air. It can lead to damage, corrosion and even leakage of water build-up (chemical reactions). It becomes particularly detrimental when you use cleaning fluids or detergents on it; this will negate all its virtues. A good solution would be warm soapy water in which you run a humidifier. This will dissolve the salts and prevent them from becoming corrosive. When it dries, these ions should be safely etched away by their own dry minerals content; nevertheless, this can also happen with warm water alone.

2) Humidifiers have their main fan (three single-core coils on a common exhaust) at one end to facilitate airflow through the room while heating up moisture – use caution when cleaning the humidifier’s main motor; it should be taken to a service center for proper cleaning, even if you hear the fan constantly running without any other issues. When cleaned alongside humidifier maintenance kits, their motors need not be washed in clean water – the built-up grime on such covers will allow them to perform properly within 5 minutes of its usage restarts.

3) Another important wire is connected with cylinders and fans too. Its opened end from where leads are connected is placed close to filters. Use only Q-tips and soap for cleaning the wire so that it does not get damaged or disconnected due to incorrect use of tools. (You could purchase those premade ones who have clips and rubber sealing tape – they tend to be thin enough on a delicate cleaner.)

There is actually another system that will allow you to clean and disinfect the humidifier, and it works like this, you have to take the tank and fill it with a solution of vinegar and water. Once this is done, you need to insert the container into the appliance and start it for at least 60 minutes. After that, always make sure to take out the container, discard the vinegar solution, and do a further cleaning of the tank. Furthermore, the advice is to clean it not only after but also before this stage. To know more please visit probaby.

8 Photography Tips And Advice For Beginners

To help you get started, I’ve compiled the best photography tips and techniques for beginning photographers. Although, if you already have some experience, I am convinced that you will also find some of these basic photography tips interesting, either as a reminder or as a new way of looking at some photographic aspects.

With these photography tricks for beginners, you will be much closer to achieving those photos you dream of. Let’s see them!

Train To Have A Keen Eye For Photography

Photography Tips And Advice

True, it sounds cliché, but it really is the most important beginner photography tip. What it means is that you look at things with one final picture in mind. I like to refer to this as the great photographer Ansel Adams did: preview.

Observe a scene and imagine what you could do photographically with it. Because photography is more than pushing a button. You are creating an image, perhaps even a work of art, of what is in front of your eyes. Be observant before you shoot mindlessly.

You may hear many people say that “learning to see” is one of the most important qualities you need as a photographer, and they are right, so try to put it into practice as much as you can. Observe the world around you with the idea of ​​making that scene an image that expresses and tells something. Even without a camera, you can see the world through a lens. This photography tip will help you take better photos even before you take your camera out of your backpack.

Understand How Light Works In Photography

The next tip for photography beginners is to understand how light works. Of course, you know what light is, but how does light work in photography? The term photography actually means drawing with light, and to learn photography, you will have to understand and handle light.d

The basic camera settings will help you get a good image. In addition, learning basic photography techniques, as well as the essential elements of photography, are the basis for creating images that engage the viewer. However, using light will be what makes your photo stand out from the rest.

Take a look at some of your favorite photos, whether taken by yourself or by others. See where there are shadows, where the lights shine. Then imagine where the light source was that caused those lights and shadows. Analyze how the light affects what you want to highlight and helps to give volume to the different elements.

Handling the light correctly is possibly one of the most difficult tricks for beginner photographers at first. But once you get the hang of it, there will be a substantial improvement in your images.

Master The Basics Of Photography – Fundamental Beginner Tip

What are the photography basics that any beginner should learn?

The three variables controlling exposure are the diaphragm aperture or f-stop, the shutter speed, and  ISO. Understanding the exposure triangle will give you control over the final image.

Manual mode is always intimidating when you start out, but you don’t have to use it fully. You can try a semi-automatic mode and start experimenting with the various camera settings.

Using the aperture priority mode or the shutter speed priority mode, you will learn more easily the basic exposure settings and can put into practice other basic photographic techniques such as freezing the movement of a scene, creating a long exposure. daytime with slow shutter speeds, or control of depth of field using different aperture apertures.

In Capture the Atlas we have written a guide to explain what is the best shooting mode of the camera for each situation and thus help beginners to improve their photographs, so I recommend you read it to be clear about all the basic concepts of photography.

Learn The Basic Rules Of Composition In Photography

If you are not sure where to start and want to learn photography, I recommend you study the basic rules of photographic composition.

One of the basic rules of composition present in any list of photography tips for beginners is the rule of thirds. This rule will help you compose your photos in a balanced and simple way from the beginning. But there are also other types of photo compositions that are easy to implement.

As you learn new rules of composition, you should pay attention to the guidelines, the curves in “S”, the golden ratio, and balance within the picture frame. All of these compositional principles can be used by beginning photographers with any type of camera; both an iPhone / Smartphone and any digital camera (be it reflex or mirrorless ) are used to practice different types of photographic composition.

Understanding these rules and knowing that you should not always follow them strictly is a tip that could not be missing in our guide to learn how to take photos. Here is an article that I have written about the basic rules of composition.

Start Shooting In Raw – Basic Photography Tips

One of the best beginner tips for taking good photos with a digital camera is to change your file settings from JPEG to whatever RAW file your camera has. The main reason is to be able to have files with more information and possibilities when it comes to editing the images.

In a RAW file, you will have much more information in the exhibition to work and edit the images. JPEG files straight from the camera may look more attractive, but most images will benefit from at least a few small adjustments in editing.

You can apply many photo effects and tricks with a basic image editing program. This can help you learn new photography skills, and it will also help you carefully analyze the exposure, light, and composition in your photos. Therefore, to learn how to take pictures like a professional, I advise you to start shooting in RAW and editing your images.

Use The Basic Focus Tips

The modes of automatic focus are one of your best allies as a novice photographer. Many advanced and professional photographers also rely on autofocus in many photographic situations.

At other times, such as when photographing the Milky Way or capturing the Northern Lights,  mastering manual focus is essential, as most digital cameras have a difficult time focusing in low light conditions.

In either case, to make sure your photos are in focus, check your camera manual to see how you can adjust the focus points that are used and how to focus manually if necessary. This is one of the basic tips to get started in photography.

Don’t Be Afraid Of Your Camera’s Manual Mode – How To Take Better Photos

If you want to know how to improve as a photographer, you should start taking pictures in the different modes that your camera has, including manual mode.

Once you’ve learned the basics of exposure and the exposure triangle. And controlled all the buttons on your camera, one of the best tips for beginners is to review your photos. Try shooting in manual and review the images on the display screen of your camera. While you are photographing or directly on your computer, phone, or tablet.

By reviewing your images, you can understand your camera in just 10 minutes. Change the various parameters manually and take note of the effects each change causes. In addition to exposure changes, you can easily see the differences when using slow and fast shutter speeds. As well as changes in depth of field when using different apertures.

Learn To Hold Your Camera Correctly

One of the best tips for beginners when using a reflex camera is to simply know the best way to carry and hold the camera.

Many beginning DSLR and mirrorless photographers are used to taking photos with their mobile phones. Simply by lifting the phone in front of their face and using the viewing screen to compose the image. However, with traditional digital cameras, I do not advise you to do this.

A photographer holding a camera should generally stand with their feet approximately shoulder-width apart, with one foot slightly in front of the other for better balance. Also, with the camera at eye level, keep your arms close to your body for greater stability.

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Best Universities to Study Law

Did you know that the Law degree is the third with the most graduates nationwide? If you are thinking of studying law, it is essential that you have the best training in such a competitive world. We have a list of the most recognized universities in the area, it does not matter if you are looking for a public or private university:

Best Public Universities to Study Law

Economic Research and Teaching Center – CIDE

It is the most prestigious study house nationwide to train you as a lawyer, it is located in CDMX.

The National Autonomous University of Mexico – UNAM

Study Law in Mexico

It is always an excellent option!

Autonomous University of Nuevo León – UANL

If you live in the north of the country, you should know that it is the most recognized house of studies in the region.

University of Guadalajara – UDG

Nine of its University Centers appear in this year’s count: CUCSH, CU de los Valles, CU de la Costa, CU de los Altos, CU del Norte, CU de la Ciénega, CU de la Costa Sur, CU de los Lagos and South CU .

Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla

BUAP. If it is in your possibilities to study in the state of Puebla, do not stop considering it.

Autonomous University of Queretaro – UAQ

Its University Center campus is the best option to study Law in Queretaro.

The Autonomous University of Mexico – UNAM

The Cuajimalpa and Azcaptozalco Academic Units are other magnificent spaces to study Law in Mexico City.

Autonomous University of the State of Mexico – AMEX

This university has four high-level University Centers to study Law: Toluca, Atlacomulco, Amecameca, and Zumpango.

Best Private Universities to Study Law

University of the Americas Puebla – UDLAP

The best private university to study Law in Puebla this year.

Iberoamerican University – IBERO

On this occasion, its campuses located in CDMX and Puebla stand out in particular.

Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente If you are from the state of Jalisco, ITESO is the best private school to study Law in the region.

University of Monterrey – UDEM

In Nuevo León, it is a solid option to study Law.

Autonomous University of Guadalajara – UAG

The second best private university in Jalisco to train as a lawyer.

University of the Pedregal – UP

This year stands out as one of the most recommended institutions in CDMX to study Law.

Regiomontana University – UERRE

Another great educational institution in Nuevo León.

University of the Valley of Puebla – UVP

It is one of the best private universities in Puebla to pursue a law degree.

TecMilenio University – UTM

This university has maintained a sustained step towards excellence in several of its educational programs, Law is one of them.

Justo Sierra University – UJS

The Cien Metros campus has managed to position itself as one of the best places to study Law in CDMX.

Intercontinental University UNINTER

In the State of Morelos, this is a great option.

Here is no way to say no to receiving a quality education, just as you deserve it. Remember it is an investment in your future; do not forget to analyze all the options and choose the one that best suits your needs and possibilities. Studying with the best is worth it!

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law of decreasing marginal utility and why?

Decreasing marginal utility is a term widely used in economics that assumes a decrease in the utility of a good or service as needs are satisfied.

The law of decreasing marginal utility

marginal utility law

The utility of things varies inversely with their quantity. As the consumption or acquisition of a thing increases, the total utility moves at a decreasing rate, for the reason that the utility of each additional unit of the product decreases as the total number of units acquired increases.

total utility increases as we increase consumption; while the marginal utility is decreasing. The first piece of bread produces greater satisfaction than the second, third, fourth, etc. The nutritional value of bread can remain constant, but psychologically we underestimate its value in terms of satisfaction. The study of the usefulness of things also presupposes that it is possible to measure the concrete degrees of satisfaction of usefulness.

Marginal Utility

In economics, marginal utility is the utility that a consumer gives to a consumed good, which is relative or subjective depending on the consumer’s circumstances.

The marginality of utility

For a certain consumer, using a good or service generates a certain utility, which depends on the perspectives of each consumer, which makes it subjective.

It is called marginal because it is assumed that the more units there are of a product, the lower the utility granted to it, and the greater the fewer units available, the greater the utility granted by the consumer.

In other words, when a product is abundant its utility is low, but, on the contrary, when a product is scarce, its utility is higher.

The marginal utility of a good in a way depends on the consumer’s taste and whim, which makes it mathematically difficult to measure it exactly.

Decreasing marginal utility

When the human being possesses an object his interest in it diminishes. And if he has more of that same object, his interest diminishes even more.

When you do not have the object yet, the person gives it greater utility. But once you have it, the perceived utility is lower, which is an emotional behavior that has a great effect on the economy.

Accessing an additional good after a need has been satisfied represents a lower utility for the consumer.

Example of decreasing marginal utility

Let’s suppose that a person buys a next-generation smartphone, which generates great consumer satisfaction. But if they buy two smartphones of the same reference, the utility perceived by that second unit decreases.

And, consequently, the less the possibility that the same person will consume the same product again.

Consequences of decreasing marginal utility.

People consume or buy goods and services according to the utility. The interest in it decreases due to the decreasing marginal utilities. Which also decreases the consumption of that product.

The marginal utility does not refer so much to the value of a thing in itself. Since it is a subjective matter for each consumer. Who loses interest in a product or service as he consumes it.

And after a few days, that new product that one day brought him so much satisfaction. The passage of time no longer arouses his interest.

This occurs because the utility perceived by the consumer decreases as he uses or consumes the product. And hence every new product, novel, or newcomer to the market has high sales. And with the passage of time, these sales decrease as a consequence of decreasing marginal utilities.

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What is the Law and policy differences?

What is the difference between a law and policy? Law can be defined as rules of conduct established by an authority. The policy can be defined as plans, especially for controlling or deciding something. Generally, laws apply to everyone, while policies are usually enforced on certain groups.

What is law?

Law includes all rules of conduct established by an authority. So, it is done by the government or organizations to regulate behavior. In addition, violations of law are punishable as crimes and the laws may include rules for making decisions in specific situations.

What is the policy?

A policy is a plan or course of action adopted or proposed for the sake of gaining an advantage or avoiding disadvantage. For example, it could be written in guidelines like the employee handbook. Some policies are active and enforced within certain groups, while others are passive and might only apply to specific situations. Also, policies may include procedures created by an organization that individuals must follow to be a member of the organization.

What are some examples of law?

For example, murder is unlawful in most countries, and violations of this law might result in a crime punishable by jail or even death. However, laws can also be less serious such as jaywalking, which may only result in a fine.

What are some examples of policy?

A policy could be written in guidelines like the employee handbook. For example, it could be stated not to allow employees to access certain websites on work computers which means that if an employee violates this policy, they might face disciplinary action. Also, policies can include procedures created by an organization that individuals must follow to be a member of the organization. For example, an organization might require all employees to sign contracts before starting employment, which means they cannot resign without risking legal consequences such as loss of wages.

Difference between law and policy

 law and policy definition

Policies are usually enforced on certain groups. Laws apply to everyone. Laws can be defined as rules of conduct established by an authority. The policy can be defined as plans, especially for controlling or deciding something. Generally, laws apply to everyone, while policies are usually enforced on certain groups.

The Law and policy difference is that laws are enforced on every nation’s citizens, while policies are for specific groups like students, drunk drivers, etc. The factors that contribute to this difference include:

  1. Whether it is created by an authority or not; 2. Whether everyone or certain groups follow it; 3. How the rule of conduct is created.

Is public policy the same as law?

As a general rule, no. Rather, public policy is proposed rules or actions proposed by certain governmental institutions to control their constituencies and the citizens of their country. However, the difference between law and policy does not mean that policies never become laws. For example, a political party may propose a bill that goes through the legislative process until it becomes a law.

Another example of public policy is that it may include the rules and actions created by the president or parliament to control their constituency (i.e., citizens). For example, they might prohibit people from smoking in certain areas like highways or restaurants to improve air quality.


Law is rules of conduct established by authority, while policy can include plans and procedures adopted or proposed for gaining an advantage. Also, the law is for all people, while the policy is mostly enforced on certain groups or only in some situations.

You may also be interested in WHY DO WE NEED LAW IN OUR LIFE AND SOCIETY?

How long does law school take?

If you want to sit for the bar exam by year three or four, you need to start studying for the bar right away! Most bar study materials recommend taking a class in Legal Research and Writing so you can get some experience with legal documents. If you want to sit for the exam right after your first year, then you could take it.

#1 Year 1 (fall)

Contracts – Torts – Property

#2 Year 2 (fall)

Civil Procedure – Criminal Law – Legal Research & Writing

#3 Year 3 (spring)

None / Bar Study! As mentioned above, at most law schools that would mean graduating in three years, but it could be four or more years if you go part-time. That plan requires getting through three full courses each semester plus writing a research paper. You will need to figure out extra time for taking bar review classes, working part-time, etc.

#4 Year 4

Take the Bar! If you want to get some experience with legal research and writing, then you could take Legal Research & Writing your second semester. It is also a good idea to take Property during your first year as it will give you a good foundation for other property courses that aren’t in your schedule. What about study abroad? Depending on how much of a distraction studying abroad is, it can either help or hurt the timeline quite a bit (as well as cost money). If you are swapping between visiting different countries while trying to pass the bar that may not be feasible unless you have Lawyer superpowers. But if you layover it in a different country or only going for a couple of weeks, that should not be a problem.

#5 Year 5

If you could get through three courses each semester, then congratulations, you’ve graduated! If not, well, law school doesn’t take less time just because you’re slow (or busy studying abroad). The best way to know if you are going to be able to take the classes needed is by looking at your school’s Catalog and seeing what they offer.

What year does law school start?

If your class doesn’t start until September 2014, it will be very difficult to get through three courses taught in only 10 weeks. On the other hand, if they start in two weeks, there is a good chance that you can get through all six courses before summer vacation even starts.

What is the distribution of your graduate classes?

Some schools offer one course per semester and others expect you to take three or four classes each semester. Also, note that some schools have their fall semester and spring semester while others have two fall semesters. If schools offer classes in the summer, does the law school offer any courses, or is it just an optional study abroad opportunity?

What is required for graduation?

Some schools don’t care if you complete all six of your first-year classes before graduating, whereas other law schools expect students to complete all six courses before getting their diplomas. If a law school doesn’t let you graduate until you have taken a certain number of credit hours, it will likely be hard to get through three full courses in one semester and four classes in the other.

What are the course descriptions?

Some schools expect students to know how to properly research and write law school papers, while others just give you a packet of notes and tell you to do whatever. Knowing what kind of work is expected can help figure out if studying abroad will be a hindrance or benefit your learning (i.e., if there aren’t enough research skills taught in the first year, then studying abroad could teach that).

What is the content of your courses?

It can be difficult to make it through three courses if your classes cover topics like:

  1. a) Environmental Law – a subject that needs to be taken with other students who have similar interests and focuses (or so I have been told by professors).
  2. b) Health Law – another one you need to take with other students interested in the same health issues as you (because you will be sharing a lot of notes and having interesting discussions).
  3. c) Contracts – an interesting subject, but if it is taught by a professor who doesn’t like to lecture or doesn’t teach Contracts from scratch, then you may run into problems. In addition, some professors may have personality issues.
  4. d) Real Property – not a bad class to take, but if the professor is going over the same material from last year, or even worse, he won’t let you use your newly acquired study abroad knowledge, then it might be difficult.
  5. e) Torts – another interesting subject but only if you can understand what’s being said.

What is the workload for each class?

If you have to write a paper every week, it could be very difficult to keep up with your classes. On the other hand, if you only have to do a couple of work paragraphs over 3 weeks, even studying abroad might not be an issue.

Final thoughts,

If you have an idea as to which classes you want to take, but then find out that the school does not offer those courses until next year (or ever), there is not much that can be done. The easiest way around this dilemma is to get into a standard track program: 1L-2L-3L.

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The most beautiful Law Schools in the world

Have you ever wanted to be catapulted into the American colleges you see in TV series? Or to shoot in the classrooms where the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States or the greatest heads of state have studied?

Some very ancient, others ultra-modern, some have churned out dozens of Nobel prizes.

We are talking about the most famous and prestigious Faculties of Law. And it’s not just about the best universities, we want you to virtually travel around the most beautiful universities in the world.

The third best law school in the US. It is perhaps the most beautiful, or, at least, the one that has the most beautiful study areas. It area created to promote debate and the exchange of views among law students. The large windows and some devices, installed in 2011 to reduce the environmental impact, make this university the most innovative in the world from an eco-green point of view.

The University of Sidney, Faculty of Law

A glass building. No, not the one in Via Porta di Massa. We are talking about Australian excellence. The impressive stainless steel and glass construction was built in 2009. Its curved ceilings, the large glass atrium, and natural light, which penetrates through the structure, seem to make studying law more inspiring.

Harvard Law School

Here we play easy. It’s a bit like saying that the best pizza is Made in Naples. Harvard Law School is rated the best in the world every year but often has to contend with Yale University for primacy. Harvard has produced presidents like Barack Obama and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. But also Andrew Cheung, President of the Hong Kong Supreme Court. It boasts one of the most important legal libraries ever. According to some, it is the largest of the university ones. It is the collegiate setting of Blondes’ Revenge, in which a young – and very blonde – Reese Witherspoon cultivates the dream of becoming a successful lawyer. This is located in the Boston metropolitan area, sharing land with another major university giant, MIT.

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Many world-renowned artistic personalities have put their hands there. Including the revolutionary Diego Rivera, one of the initiators of muralist painting. And O’Gorman with his mosaics. Founded in 1551, UNAM became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007.

Cambridge Law University

In Cambridge, he studied the inventor of the camera, the maker of the first atomic bomb. And as many as 23 Heads of State, where Erasmus of Rotterdam and Stephen Hawking taught. And the primordial version of the computer was also born here. But let’s get to the Faculty of Law. It is not the best in the world, it ranks “only” in third place, and as always, every year, second in the UK, to the much-hated Oxford. Rebuilt in the 90s, it is beautiful, in all 9000 square meters of surface, surrounded by meadows and ponds, with its library overlooking the gardens.

The University of Law of Bologna

It is the oldest university in the western world. It was the school of Dante, Petrarch, and Guinizzelli. The first professorship granted to a woman, moreover, a law graduate is also from Bologna: it was the 1940s, yes, but in the 1200s. life of a jurist.

If you pass through Bologna, do not give up on anything in the world to visit the Archiginnasio Library, it is wonderful.

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Why do we need law in our life and society?

It is common to hear that the ways are more effective than those of the law. Although some cases could support such an immediate thesis, a human group led down that path is condemned to insecurity, violence, misery, and desolation, to that “miserable, unhappy and sad” condition in which it was plunged according to Hobbes the human species before the establishment of the law. In the fields sown with insecurity and unrest, progress, peace, well-being, and happiness cannot germinate. Why do we need a law? The rule of law, the “rule of law,” is still a requisite for economic progress. It is also for equality. It is a dam against the oppression of the weak by the strong.

Why do we need a law?

Law is the highest creation of humanity on its way from barbarism to harmonious coexistence, freedom, and peace. It is together with love, the most sublime concretion of human rationality and reasonableness. Only the law makes the exercise of freedom and civilized life possible. Without limits to the behaviors accepted by all, freedom would perish drowned by brute force and coexistence mired in chaos and the insecurity of unpredictable violence.

The law makes possible

The overcoming of the empire of the stick, brute force, the oppression of the strong over the weak, and the domination of anarchized human whims. When humanity was able to conceive and formulate general and impersonal rules valid for all regardless of culture and individual thoughts, to which compliance is promised and due, it overcame its innate conflicts without resorting to oppression and violence.

The conflict is inherent like man, to be fragile

Subject to a permanent struggle between his instincts and his rationality, a victim in addition to contingencies and circumstances that induce him to misuse his freedom, “capable of exalting himself as well as deteriorating” as Rousseau noted. Both the laws and their application are imperfect, subject to corruption and fragility of legislators, jurists, the authority that applies them, and even manipulating the powerful. But still, a society governed by laws is preferable to one governed by violence, oppression, looting, and murder.

It is necessary to comply with and defend dialogue

Civilized controversy, and the rule of law even in its imperfection, since establishing de facto ways to resolve conflicts can only lead to drift and barbarism. Law and love are the salts that prevent the corruption of society. For this reason, it is necessary to promote fair legislation, preserve the correct exercise of justice, and cultivate solidarity and respect for human dignity.

The importance is that the laws in life and society and protocol serve to behave with correctness and decorum on each occasion that accredits it. In this way, you can perform well and not do or act with stridencies or dress or say. Good manners make life and relationships with others more bearable. Of course, these rules are not used at all social levels or in all countries. They are the same.

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12 laws of karma that will change your life

Karma is a philosophy of life, a way of conceiving our presence in the world that considers that people are part of the cosmos and, therefore, all the energy that we emit to our environment we will receive sooner or later. Karma is based on the ancient belief that “you reap what you sow,” but, in addition to this, it also stipulates twelve laws that will help you focus your life in a way more in line with our purest essence. In this article, we will discover the 12 laws of karma to understand a little more the philosophical theory of this idea from Eastern cultures.

What is karma?

Before explaining the 12 laws of karma we will start by talking about this concept. It is a Sanskrit word that comes from different Eastern philosophies (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Ayyavazhi) and contains a theory about the way we have to be in the world to achieve happiness now and in our lives to come.

Karma is considered a cosmic law of cause/effect by which every action we commit in our life carries, achieves, an irremediable consequence. So, if we do negative actions, we will negatively affect our current life and affect our future lives (reincarnations), causing us to become beings like insects, plants, etc.

In this way, this law promulgates that destiny is in our hands and that we cannot complain if things go wrong for us because this course has been due to some negative action that we have done previously. If you want to collect a good seed, you must first harvest a good seed. This is, in short, the theory of karma.

The 12 Laws of Karma

Karma does not believe that there is chance or chance in our life. We do not have good or bad luck but that everything we live is the result of our actions in this life or our previous lives. There are 12 laws of karma that dictate the way we respond to our actions, feelings, and thoughts, and then we will reveal them to you:

Law 1: The Great Law

It is the law of cause/effect, that is, that conception that each one “reaps what he sows. ” Within the concept of karma, it is considered that all the acts that we sow do not remain in our time or space but are launched into the universe and, therefore, it will return it to us sooner or later. This vision of the world believes that the energy that we send will return but multiplied by 10.

Law 2: Law of creation

This law refers to the fact that human beings are part of life, nature, the cosmos. Life is not independent of us. We actively participate in it and the order of the world. For this reason, what surrounds us (which is not by chance) also offers us interesting information about ourselves and about the way we are internally so, as much as we do not want to see it when we are bad, we will surely surround ourselves with negative things or sad people. It is still a projection of our inner energy.

Thus, this karmic law indicates that you must always be yourself and that you must surround yourself with everything you want to have in your life because things are not there by chance. If you want to improve your happiness, it is completely in your hands to do so.

Law 3: Law of humility

We are not gods, nor are we back and a half of everything. We also make mistakes and have defects, among them that we are not humble and often refuse to see reality as it is. This law indicates that, no matter how much you refuse to accept it, reality continues to prevail, so we have to be humble and, if we do not like something, accept our mistakes, our failures and try to create positive energy to change it.

It also indicates that if we surround ourselves with negative people or with qualities that we do not quite like, we are not yet at the higher level and that we have to continue working so that life continues to give us what we sow.

Law 4: Law of growth

This law of Karma indicates that the only reliable thing in this life that we live is that we will always be by our side. That is, we will be our travel companions for as long as we are alive. And what this means is that if we want to improve our life, we ​​just have to do it ourselves. We should not expect that anything or anyone will give us happiness or personal growth: it is only in our hands.

We have control of our life and, as we are part of the cosmos, what we cultivate inside will be reflected on the outside. So if we cultivate spiritual peace, love for all humans, and calm, we will be able to reflect these feelings in our environment and, thus, to be able to modify, however little it may be, the world.

Law 5: Law of responsibility

We have to take responsibility for our actions, our mistakes, and our failures. When something bad happens around us, it is because, inside you, there is negative energy and you are projecting it to the outside, causing this type of “incident” that has nothing to do with the chance to happen to you. Being aware of this is important to modify our behavior and enjoy a more fulfilling and satisfying life.

Law 6: Law of connection

We must not forget that we are connected to the universe, to the cosmos, so any act we do (or think), no matter how insignificant it may seem, has repercussions. In addition, there is no time in the universe, so the past, present, and future can intermingle and cause an effect on us. So, this law of karma indicates that we do not forget this connection that we have and that we act by promulgating good in our day-to-day life so that our bad actions do not affect us.

Law 7: Law of focus

We have to move forward and grow personally slowly, progressively, with patience and calm. We do not want to learn everything all of a sudden. Let’s go little by little, calmly learn spiritual values and, when we are busy with personal growth, we will understand that by being focused on this new teaching. There will be no room for negative thoughts like anger, greed, envy, and so on in our minds.

Law 8: Law of giving and hospitality

It is a conception that defends that we have to be hospitable, give to others without expecting anything in return, give love, affection, respect and, thus, you will be working for a much more humanized, natural society and in line with the laws of nature.

Law 9: Law of the here and now

This law has a lot to do with the ” Carpe diem, “that is, we have to live in the present, focus on it, to work for a prosperous and much better future. It will be useless to be aware of the past or obsessed with the mistakes we have made. We have to move forward, assuming our mistakes and working to fix them. Those old emotions are what anchor us to our past and prevent us from renewing ourselves, so let’s overcome them and start living in the present.

Law 10: Law of change

The unpleasant stories and situations that we live in can be repeated until you learn the lesson they are trying to teach us. We have to be aware that this type of action occurs to teach us a lesson, so it will be repeated until we learn it. As soon as you detect it, you will surely begin to put the mechanism of change to improve yourself.

Law 11: Law of patience and reward

You have to be patient, push yourself, and work hard to have the reward you expect. The greatest gratification is the one that comes after having worked hard for it, so we have to be patient and, in the end, our effort will be rewarded by this karmic law.

Law 12: Law of Importance and Inspiration

You must dedicate all your energy and effort to change and personal growth because if you do it in a mediocre way, you will receive a very slight impact and hardly notice any change. You have to put all your heart and drive into each act to have the effect you are looking for.

You may also like to read: What is Commercial and Importance of Commercial Law?

What is Commercial and Importance of Commercial Law?

The Commercial Law also called ” Business Law ” is the branch of the Private Law that is responsible for regulating trade relations between persons, whether physical or moral, as well as acts, places, and contracts stemming from the trade itself.

Currently, Commercial Law knows no borders: the import and export of products and services are part of the day-to-day. If you are looking to take your products to Spain or Latin America, or to bring products from abroad, you will need professional advice, capable of solving all your doubts and with the necessary experience to carry out the process optimally.

Importance of Commercial Law

The Commercial Law is responsible for ensuring that the economic activity is carried out correctly, setting the framework for intervention by the public authorities, if necessary, as it is in protecting the consumer. Also, Commercial Law monitors the financial system, given the amounts of money that are usually handled in commerce.

In this way, Commercial Law regulates the relationships between legal entities and between companies and clients, as well as between sellers and buyers. In addition, when you find specialized advice in this branch of Law.

Contact us and receive a comprehensive service that will allow you to expand the borders of your company.

Characteristics of Commercial Law

The Commercial Law has five basic characteristics that define it :

Professional law. The Commercial Law Concerning the specific office of a professional sector: trade and business.

Progressive. This branch of Law is constantly updated, due to the changes in conditions in the commercial exercise in a certain geographical area.

Customary. One of the sources of Commercial Law is tradition, for which the laws will be based on the commercial tradition of the countries.

Internationalized. The Commercial Law beyond national borders, regulating international trade transactions between individuals or multinational corporations.

Individualistic. The Commercial Law is part of the Private Law, so it focuses on trade relations between individuals, always seeking the regulation and benefit both parties, provided they adhere to the legal framework, which has as sources:

Law. This branch of law is also part of positive law. That is why it has written and published regulations in the codes and conditions that are responsible for establishing the Commercial Law. In the event that there are legal gaps, the regulation will be based on Common Law.

Jurisprudence. The different commercial organizations, both national and international, interpret the law to resolve conflicts, thus creating a corpus of historical decisions, which will be the basis for future laws and decisions.

Custom. Commerce is a fairly old practice, which arose before the birth of Commercial Law. That is why this practice is heir to the traditions and commercial customs customary in the community or region.

Some branches of Commercial Law

Contract law. It refers to the type of right that regulates contracts. That is, the obligations and rights acquired voluntarily when signing a document.

Banking law. Regulates the exercise of banks and other similar financial entities.

Exchange law. It is directly linked to the regulations on securities, shares, and investments.

Bankruptcy law. It contains substantive and procedural rules in everything that refers to debts and creditors.

Maritime law. Regulates the exchange of goods and services between countries and/or regions, as long as maritime actions are involved.

Corporate law. It is also known as “company law ” or ” corporate law “, and deals with business subjects, as well as existing forms of association.

Why is it important to know the laws?

It is more than known that in each country, a rule of law must prevail that guarantees the full and free coexistence of its citizens. It is difficult to imagine in these times a state without laws. Then, it would give way to anarchy and disorder in society.

In the United States, there are Federal, State, and Local laws that regulate the actions of people in all fields of life, which apply to locals and foreigners. These not only contemplate duties but also rights. How important is knowing these laws for the Latino community?

In conversation with Hola News, the lawyer Christine Camacho, from the Weaver Bennet & Bland law firm, presented interesting data that helps us to know why we should be informed of the laws of this country, otherwise, we would run considerable risks of losing benefits that they contemplate.

Camacho, fundamentally argues to enforce our rights. Because many times out of fear associated with the consequences of having an undefined legal status in the United States. Some Latinos are not willing to go to court to claim rights that by law correspond to them. . From the outset, the lawyer clarifies that it is very unlikely that there will be immigration officers in a court to review the status of permanence in the nation of the citizens who attend there.

For this and other reasons, Camacho recommends that, in any legal situation. The first step that should be taken is to seek legal assistance from a professional. To advise and support you in any eventuality.


Camacho explains to us that we must be aware that, in all civil proceedings, typified in legal codes, such as divorce, child or partner support, work accidents, traffic accidents, and others, “no person has to allow, Come from the country you come from, that your rights are violated, just because you do not have a citizenship, green card, visa or any document that establishes a condition allowed in the country. The laws are there and they are clear. If, for example, two people are married in Colombia and want to get a divorce here. They can open their case, adhering to what the law establishes and that marriage dissolution is specified.

Another situation could be in relation to the custody and support of the children or the partner.

Circumstances related to occupational or vehicle accidents are also highly regarded, according to the lawyer. A Latino who suffers injuries while doing his job or in a car collision.

To fight for our rights “you have to know the laws, put fear aside and act for your own benefit. If not, you will lose more than you can imagine. Thus, on the contrary, violating the law by ignoring it will also bring its consequences since ignorance does not free it from responsibility, ”Camacho explained.


Weaver Bennet and Bland’s family lawyer also commented on high rates of Latino citizens who miss the opportunity to open cases before the court. Having all the conditions to claim what exactly belongs to them. It is for these reasons already exposed by the expert in-laws and judicial procedures in the United States. That we must take very seriously having at least a base of what the judicial statutes of this country establish.


What are the laws?

Laws are the set of legal rules issued by a legislator, that is, by a competent authority in the matter. Its function is to order, prohibit or allow something specific and concrete. Its compliance is mandatory for those who live under the rule of the same legal code to which the law belongs, such as the constitution of a country or its penal code.

Those who do not obey the laws are exposed to punishment by the forces of State order. They must defend the official legal framework and guarantee, at least in democracies, equal rights before the Law, that is, the rule of law.

Furthermore, no law can contradict the fundamental mandates of the Constitution or Magna Carta. This is because the laws have a certain type of hierarchy among themselves, in which the Constitution occupies the highest place so that any legislation must be subordinated to it. Laws are also the field of expertise of lawyers, judges, and legislators.

Origin of the laws

Laws have existed since man understood the need for a common code that distinguishes good from evil.

However, for a long time, human societies were at the mercy of the whims of law enforcement, such as judges.

This changed when the Babylonian King Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC) made the decision to have the laws in writing.

Thus the first code of law was drawn up, which was distributed among the people so that everyone could read and know it.

History of laws

The laws and their written supports have changed a lot throughout history. Many peoples devised their own codes and laws. Some required mutual agreement sustained in religious mandates, such as the Tables of Law. In others, they were imposed by force, as empires did with their conquered neighbors.

Special mention deserves the way of making the laws of the Roman Empire, the direct precursor of the western legal system. The first compilation of Roman Law was made during the government of Emperor Hadrian, who gave the instruction in 121 AD. C. to compile the laws in force.

The result was the Perpetual Edict. Its objective was to make the application of the law fairer since it would not depend on the memory or the will of the judges.

Later, the Edict was not enough due to the enormous number of laws that accompanied the growth of the Empire. For this reason, during the government of Justinian, a new Roman code was drawn up, called Corpus Juris Civilis and known as the Justinian Code (529 in its first version and 534 in the second).

The system of laws in the West then suffered a major setback during the Middle Ages. With the development of feudalism, laws were imposed on his fiefdom by each landowner or lord. However, religious laws were above all, under the surveillance of the Catholic Church and its institutions, such as the Holy Inquisition.

Later, as the kingdoms were unified and monarchs were crowned, both sets of laws became one. In this way, the absolute power of the monarch was maintained and the ecclesiastical clergy at his side in the government.

This last legal provision ended with the advent of the Modern Age. With it, the study of laws and the application of reason as a new precept of bourgeois societies developed. These arose from the French Revolution of 1789 when the laws governing the universal rights of humanity were declared.

Definitions of laws

Some historical definitions of law are as follows:

“The common consent of the city” Aristotle (384-322 BC)

“It is what the people command and establish” Gaius (c. 120-c. 178)

“Ordination of reason directed by the common good and solemnly promulgated by the one who cares for the community” Saint Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274)

“Legislation means the establishment of general legal norms, whatever the body that carries it out” Hans Kelsen (1881-1973)

Types of laws

A very first division of the total body of laws distinguishes the fact of whether or not they are contained in a legal body of writing. Thus, we have:

  • Natural law. Natural laws are those that are based on the biology of man or on precepts considered extremely basic, elementary, of the human condition. These laws are proper to the mere fact of being human. They are considered prior and hierarchical above any written body of law.
  • Positive law. All those laws promulgated within the framework of a society and that have a written text that supports and contains them, such as codes and regulations. This law in turn is classified according to its mode of operation in:
  • Permissive. Those that provide a right or a possibility.
  • Prohibitive. Those that curtail freedom or restrict a right.
  • Declarative. Those whose content consists of definitions or formal explanations.

What are the laws for?

Laws serve primarily to dictate, prohibit or allow something in a specific society. By law the rules of the game are established, be it in the criminal, commercial, family, or any other possible field.

Societies that determine themselves are governed by their own laws, while those subjected to another are governed by those dictated by their colonizer. Laws are always backed by an authority or a power to which they are functional to maintain a specific order.

Who makes the laws?

Laws must be issued by a legitimate and recognized authority to be valid. They are the result of social, political, and legal institutions. Its approval generally follows some kind of protocols, which eventually lead to its dissemination among the people who must abide by it.

For example, in democratic republics, laws are the result of the work of the legislative body: Parliament or Congress. This legislative assembly is composed of representatives of the popular election expressed through a vote.

In other types of government, such as absolutist monarchies, laws are dictated by the will of the monarch. On the other hand, in theocratic societies, the laws are taken from some religious sacred text.

How do the laws work?

The laws work based on certain principles that are their own:

  • Generality. The law applies to all those who are contemplated in its content, without any qualifications or distinctions.
  • Mandatory. Compliance with the laws should not be optional, but imperative-attributive, committing a crime and deserving a punishment each time the provisions of the law are violated.
  • Permanence. The laws are in effect for time indefinite, until so provides the body that promulgates, either due to its replacement by another, or lack of need.
  • Abstraction and impersonality. Laws do not regulate or contemplate individual cases, but rather dictate behavior in the abstract, without being addressed to anyone in particular, but to the entire community.
  • Irretroactivity. The laws do not operate retroactively, that is, a crime committed before the law that prohibits it is passed. Laws always govern forward in time.
  • Ignorance does not exempt. Ignoring the laws, that is, not knowing that they existed, does not exempt us from the punishment provided by the law for breaking them.

How are the laws repealed?

Laws that are no longer desired or useful are repealed, that is, they are removed from circulation in society. This procedure, called repeal, corresponds to the legislative body of the company, and can only be carried out respecting the hierarchy of the laws.

Why are laws important?

Laws are the instruments by which human beings regulate our behavior in society. They provide us with a unique, similar code, with which to judge our actions and to know what is accepted or not by the population as a whole.

In addition, they define how problems that arise with the law should be resolved. In this sense, there are no lawless societies. Even if they are not official or if they are imposed by not exactly democratic types of authority.

How are laws written?

Laws usually involve a set of ordered and numbered articles (called articles ). In each one of them, the information on what the law defines prohibits, or authorizes is detailed.

Some laws are very long and include very specific articles. Others, on the other hand, are more general and expressly delegate the particular content to what is contained in other codes, norms, and laws. These articles are expressed in a general, timeless, and abstract way.

Shoplifting law: Facing criminal charges for shoplifting

If you run a retail business, you’ll already know what a problem shoplifting can be. But what are your rights as a shopkeeper?

Spotting a shoplifter

Each shoplifter will exhibit different behaviors, but some signs are typical. For example, if an individual is obviously trying not to be noticed, and looks hot and flushed, this can be suspicious. Another warning bell is if they are repeatedly picking items up and putting them down in the same area and looking around them.

Clothing is another giveaway. Shoplifters often wear clothing that is inappropriate for the weather – such as a big coat on a hot day – which they will use to hide items. They may also be carrying a sizeable bag for the same purpose. (Authority URL: British Retail Consortium)

Organized tactics

Organized thieves may well collide in groups to distract staff so that a shoplifter can take items without being spotted. Staff also sometimes collide with shoplifters. Some may switch over prices, and others will steal money by bringing back ‘fake’ returns – which can be stolen. Accidental stealing is also common, where the thief will pay for a single item, with another being held in view. If challenged, they will simply say it was accidental.

Detaining shoplifters

Primarily, you should take care of your – and your staff’s – personal safety, and train staff in these procedures. Staff must witness the theft rather than simply suspecting it. This will be a citizen’s arrest and it must only happen in certain circumstances. Because of the ‘reasonable force’ clause, this can be a difficult area, and most businesses prefer to have specialist security provision in the form of security guards.

It is well worth hiring the services of security guards in Gloucester who will be trained in the latest legislation and methods so that you can deliver effective and compliant stock control. contact Cuffgroup Security for more information about security guards. Invest in a good security system for extra peace of mind.

Also, be mindful of staff theft. Although it is less of a problem in the UK, compared to the USA, the values involved are typically sevenfold than the theft committed by a customer. Look carefully at your procedures and processes, particularly around stock control and delivery takes.

On Workplace Diversity, Do Law Firms Practice What They Preach?

Workplace diversity is more than just a buzzword — it’s imperative. Employers have a legal and moral obligation to ensure that members of protected classes — gender, race, religion, and other characteristics — don’t face discrimination or unfair treatment at work due to their background or beliefs.

These Lawsuits Changed the Legal Landscape Forever

The American legal system is a sprawling beast with numerous components. Cases can broadly be divided into two categories — tort (or civil) cases and criminal cases — though that of course understates the complexity of the situation. Although criminal cases tend to get more attention to their often sensationalistic nature and the fact that the liberty of the accused is often at stake, both criminal and civil cases can have an impact far beyond those involved.

Vehicle maintenance law: Rights and Responsibilities

We all have detected the phrase, “prevention is healthier than cure.” though this phrase is applied to health, it’s equally true for the upkeep of the vehicle. If your vehicle, whether or not it’s an automobile, a motorbike, or perhaps a bus isn’t maintained on a daily basis, it will cause several issues. A number of these embody vehicle deterioration, pollution, and even serious threats on the road. Here square measure some vital key factors that if thought-about can assist you to keep your automobile well-maintained.

Knife and Self Defense Laws in California

California is a progressive state, which means that its views lean towards the more liberal side of politics. Gay marriage is legal and capital punishment is shunned. When it comes to weapons laws, California is liberal, but also pragmatic – they know how to create penal codes that punish people who use weapons legally and illegally. For instance, if you were trying to protect yourself from an intruder, you probably wouldn’t be charged if you killed the intruder. Plus, the constitution protects the right to bear arms. When it comes to owning and using knives, the same tenets, regulations, rights, and laws apply.

Is Law School the Right Move for You?

It can be easy to get excited about one day becoming a lawyer, judge, or even a politician, but once you realize that you will need to get a law degree, the thought might be less appealing. Law school may be a very daunting experience, but it’s a very necessary and effective way to prepare a person for a career working in law. Before you actually start applying to law schools, you need to make sure you are prepared for the challenges that lie ahead.

How to Choose A Whistleblower Lawyer

Hiring an attorney can already be a tough challenge, but finding the right whistleblower attorney can be an even bigger concern simply because of what’s at stake. Whistleblowers are tasked with coming forward to report misconduct, major violations, and poor practices committed by employers and colleagues alike.

5 Tips for Choosing a Reputable Immigration Lawyer

There comes a time when many of us will need to hire an attorney at some point. But if you’re wondering what the circumstances would require hiring an immigration lawyer, there are actually several of them. If you are in the process of deportation proceedings, an immigrant who is applying to be a citizen of the United States and you don’t understand all of the paperwork that’s involved, you’re going to need an immigration lawyer. If you have committed some kind of crime that deems you inadmissible, that also may mean that you need to see an immigration lawyer. If you’re unsure of just where to begin looking for one, here are five tips for choosing a reputable immigration lawyer below: